What Is Secondary Sterility?

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Secondary sterility is a distressing condition that affects individuals who have previously been able to conceive but are now facing difficulties in achieving pregnancy. It is essential to shed light on this topic as it can cause significant emotional and psychological distress for those experiencing it. This blog post aims to provide a comprehensive overview of secondary sterility, including its causes, symptoms, and available treatment options.


Definition and Distinction 

Secondary sterility, also known as secondary infertility, refers to the inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term after having previously conceived and delivered a child. It is a condition that affects both men and women, and it can be equally devastating for couples hoping to expand their families. Unlike primary infertility, where individuals have never conceived, secondary sterility can occur unexpectedly after a period of successful reproduction.


Causes of Secondary Sterility 


As individuals age, fertility naturally declines for both men and women. Advancing age can affect the quality and quantity of eggs and sperm, making conception more challenging.

Reproductive System Disorders

Various medical conditions can contribute to secondary sterility. These include conditions such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and hormonal imbalances.


Previous Pregnancy or Delivery Complications

Complications during a previous pregnancy or delivery, such as infections, uterine trauma, or scarring, can lead to secondary sterility. These complications may affect the structure and function of the reproductive organs, making conception difficult.


Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle choices, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug abuse, and obesity, can have a negative impact on fertility. These factors can affect hormone levels, disrupt ovulation, and impair sperm quality.


Male Factors

Secondary sterility can also result from male factors, including decreased sperm count, poor sperm motility, or abnormalities in sperm shape. These factors can be influenced by underlying health conditions, lifestyle choices, or genetic factors.


Symptoms and Diagnosis 

Symptoms of secondary sterility may not be apparent since the underlying causes can vary widely. However, common signs include irregular menstrual cycles, changes in menstrual flow, pain during intercourse, and hormonal imbalances. Couples experiencing difficulties conceiving after a previous successful pregnancy should seek medical advice to undergo diagnostic tests.


Diagnosis often involves a comprehensive evaluation of both partners' medical histories, physical examinations, and various tests. These may include blood tests to assess hormone levels, semen analysis to evaluate sperm quality, imaging studies to examine the reproductive organs, and specialised procedures like hysterosalpingography to assess the fallopian tubes' patency.


Treatment Options 

The treatment for secondary sterility depends on the underlying cause and may vary for each individual or couple. Some common treatment options include:



Fertility medications may be prescribed to stimulate ovulation, regulate hormonal imbalances, or treat specific reproductive disorders. These medications may include clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, or hormonal supplements.



In cases where structural abnormalities or scarring are identified, surgical interventions may be necessary. Procedures such as laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, or surgery to remove fibroids or correct blockages in the fallopian tubes can improve the chances of conception.


Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) 

ART procedures, including in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), can be viable options for couples struggling with secondary sterility. These techniques help bypass various reproductive challenges and increase the chances of successful conception.


Lifestyle Modifications

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can significantly improve fertility outcomes. This includes maintaining a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, managing stress levels, avoiding harmful substances, and optimising body weight.



Secondary sterility can be a challenging and emotional experience for individuals and couples who have previously had successful pregnancies. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for secondary sterility is crucial for seeking appropriate medical intervention and emotional support. With advancements in reproductive medicine and various available treatments, there is hope for those facing secondary sterility to fulfil their dreams of expanding their families. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals specialising in reproductive health to discuss individualised treatment plans and explore the available options for achieving a successful pregnancy.

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